October 15, 2012
Out of the scores of non-avian dinosaurs discovered, some get all the love. Almost everyone can rattle off a few of the most famous–Triceratops, Stegosaurus and, of course, Tyrannosaurus rex (the only one we ever feel compelled to call by its whole name). But the Age of Dinosaurs was a 160-million-year reign filled with a startling variety of species that we’re only just beginning to become acquainted with. It’s truly a shame that we continually focus on the same handful when there were so many wonderful forms. Among the unsung dinosaurs is Agujaceratops, a horned herbivore that was only recently recognized for what it truly was.
The story of Agujaceratops goes back the better part of a century. During excavations in 1938 and 1939, a Works Progress Administration crew picked away at a dense dinosaur bonebed in what is now southwestern Texas’ Big Bend National Park. The team pulled more than 340 bones out of the roughly 75-million-year-old Late Cretaceous rock. Although they didn’t know it at the time, most of these bones belonged to a single species of dinosaur that no one had seen before.
Five decades later, Texas Tech University paleontologist Thomas Lehman returned to the skeletal collection. The various pieces came from at least ten individual dinosaurs–from juveniles to adults–that were entombed in the same place. There was no single articulated skeleton, or even a complete skull, but by sifting through the remains Lehman reconstructed several skulls from the new horned dinosaur species. Drawing a comparison with Chasmosaurus, a previously known horned dinosaur found in Canada with similar anatomical motifs among the horns and frill, Lehman called his animal Chasmosaurus mariscalensis.
Not long after Lehman’s paper, other researchers happened upon a lovely specimen that confirmed the southern ceratopsid as a distinct dinosaur. In 1993, ceratopsian expert Catherine Forster and coauthors described a complete Chasmosaurus mariscalensis skull, showing that this dinosaur had much longer brow horns and a more saddle-shaped frill than other Chasmosaurus species to the north.
Yet, even though this study found that Chasmosaurus mariscalensis was more closely related to other Chasmosaurus species than to Pentaceratops–another southern ceratopsid that was a possible candidate for a Chasmosaurus descendant–the southern species didn’t look quite like the northern ones. The northern Chasmosaurus species had shorter brow horns and expanded, V-shaped frills that didn’t curve upwards in the same way. Why was the southern species so different? Perhaps, Forster and colleagues hypothesized, the southern species retained some archaic characteristics while the northern Chasmosaurus underwent greater modifications.
As paleontologists continued to scrutinize ceratopsids, however, the less the southern species looked like a Chasmosaurus. In a 2006 reevaluation of Chasmosaurus and Pentaceratops, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science paleontologist Spencer Lucas and collaborators placed “Chasmosaurus” mariscalensis in a new genus–Agujaceratops, named in honor of the Aguja Formation in which the dinosaur is found.
Along with other new discoveries–such as Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops from southern Utah–Agujaceratops changed the big picture of ceratopsid biogeography. As Lehman’s paper hints, some paleontologists used to think there was a kind of faunal continuum between northern and southern swaths of North America. In formations laid down at the same time (about 75 million years ago in this case), you’d expect there to be continuity between the dinosaur genera found down the latitudes. Bits and pieces of dinosaurs found in Utah, New Mexico, Texas and elsewhere were attributed to dinosaur genera discovered about 2,000 miles away in Canada. This didn’t only affect horned dinosaurs. Remains of southern tyrannosaurs, previously attributed to the northern predators Albertosaurus and Daspletosaurus, were recently found to be a previously unknown tyrant called Bistahieversor.
By way of new finds and reexaminations of old material, paleontologists have only just started to become acquainted with Agujaceratops, Bistahieversor and other dinosaurs of the southwest’s Late Cretaceous. At the species and genus levels, the southern dinosaurs are different. The big question is, why? Paleontologists know that a shallow, vanished seaway separated dinosaurs on eastern and western subcontinents for millions of years, but on that western subcontinent called Laramidia, there was apparently some other kind of barrier that isolated northern and southern dinosaur populations.
The hypothesis relies on basic evolutionary theory. Isolate populations of an ancestor species in different regions, and through factors such as natural selection and genetic drift, those populations will evolve in different ways. The fact that Agujaceratops, Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops are so different from Chasmosaurus and other northern cousins are a sign that such a barrier was in place. No one has found it yet, though, and a great deal of work remains to be done on whether all these dinosaurs were really contemporaries or reveal a much more complex evolutionary pattern. As these investigations continue, though, Agujaceratops will continue to play an important role as a symbol of isolation and evolution.
Author’s note: This is the first entry in a new series of posts, highlighting fantastic dinosaurs that are little known by the public. You won’t find Archaeopteryx, Brachiosaurus, Tyrannosaurus or other classics on this list. Those dinosaurs are famous enough already. Now it’s time to highlight some of their lesser-known cousins and contemporaries, from Agujaceratops to Zalmoxes.
Forster, C., Sereno, P., Evans, T., Rowe, T. 1993. A complete skull of Chasmosaurus mariscalensis (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae) from the Aguja Formation (late Campanian) of West Texas, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 13:2, 161-170. doi: 10.1080/02724634.1993.10011498
Lehman, T.1989. Chasmosaurus mariscalensis, sp. nov., a new ceratopsian dinosaur from Texas, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 9:2, 137-162 doi: 10.1080/02724634.1989.10011749
Lucas, S., Sullivan, R., Hunt, A. 2006. Re-evaluation of Pentaceratops and Chasmosaurus (Ornithischia: Ceratopsidae) in the Upper Cretaceous of the Western Interior, in Lucas, S. G. and Sullivan, R.M., eds., 2006, Late Cretaceous vertebrates from the Western Interior. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 35.
Sampson, S., Loewen, M., Farke, A., Roberts,E., Forster, C., et al. 2010. New Horned Dinosaurs from Utah Provide Evidence for Intracontinental Dinosaur Endemism. PLOS ONE 5(9): e12292. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012292
May 21, 2012
Cretaceous Utah was a strange place. Today’s arid, sage- and juiper-covered badlands in the southern part of the state preserve the remnants of swampy prehistoric environments that sat along the coast of a vanished seaway. And these wet habitats were inhabited by an array of bizarre dinosaurs that paleontologists are still in the process of describing. Among the recent discoveries is Utahceratops gettyi, a roughly 76-million-year-old horned dinosaur that has just been put on display at the Natural History Museum of Utah. (Full disclosure: I am currently a paleontology volunteer at the museum.)
Even though the new Natural History Museum of Utah building opened last fall, the museum is still in the process of installing a few more fossil skeletons. Utahceratops is the latest to be added to the petrified cast, standing right next to the hadrosaurs Gryposaurus and Parasaurolophus. I was happy to see the dinosaur’s skeleton come together in the exhibit last week. There was a full artistic reconstruction in the 2010 paper that described the dinosaur, but it’s another thing altogether to see the dinosaur’s reconstructed skeleton—posed as if to walk right off the museum’s Cretaceous platform and head right out the door.
September 22, 2010
At the height of the golden era of dinosaur science, it takes something special for a newly described dinosaur species to stand out. Dinosaurs with dual sickle claws, humps, or unexpected bristles more readily grab the attention of the public than more familiar-looking forms, but looks aren’t everything. A pair of horned dinosaurs described today in PLoS One are noteworthy for reasons that go beyond their strange appearances.
A few months ago, I was fortunate enough to visit the Utah Museum of Natural History’s paleontology field crew at their camp in southern Utah’s Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. The arid, rocky landscape was rich in dinosaur fossils, but 75 million years ago this same place would have looked very different. During that time in earth’s history, near the close of the Cretaceous, a shallow sea over the center of North America divided the landmass into two separate continents: Appalachia to the east and Laramidia to the west. The area which is today Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument was in the middle of the thin western continent, and according to Scott Sampson, University of Utah paleontologist and lead author of the new paper, the place was “a wet, swampy setting akin to present-day northern Louisiana.” Crocodiles, turtles, and at least 16 unique species of dinosaurs thrived here, including the two horned dinosaurs announced today.
Named Utahceratops gettyi and Kosmoceratops richardsoni, respectively, the two dinosaurs belonged to a subdivision of the horned dinosaur family called chasmosaurines. Roughly speaking, this group of horned dinosaurs can often be identified by their large brow horns and their wide, squared-off frills, and both Utahceratops and Kosmoceratops fit the classic chasmosaurine type. Nevertheless, both were distinct from species previously recognized and were significantly different from each other. While Utahceratops had relatively short brow horns in front of a large frill that was slightly indented inwards along its top margin, the slightly smaller Kosmoceratops had longer brown horns and an array of spikes that spilled forwards over its frill like a chasmosaurine comb-over.
In contrast to more familiar chasmosaurines like Triceratops, though, the browhorns in both Utahceratops and Kosmoceratops were oriented out to the side rather than forward. Why this should be so is unclear. Co-author Andrew Farke of the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Paleontology says, “it’s hard to know for sure, but in modern horned animals horn orientation usually relates to horn function.” Perhaps Utahceratops and Kosmoceratops had similar styles of combat with members of their own species, Farke hypothesizes, or maybe the peculiarity was inherited in both from a common ancestor. Likewise, according to Sampson, the sideways orientation of these horns is also seen in another horned dinosaur from Coahuila, Mexico, and may be a common characteristic of chasmosaurines from this part of Laramidia. Among these dinosaurs, “the sideways-oriented horns offer another means to lock heads and engage in contests of dominance,” Sampson says; “they would also have made effective visual signals, particularly in Kosmoceratops.”
Utahceratops and Kosmoceratops were also very different from the horned dinosaurs that lived in the same area a few million years earlier. While both of the new dinosaurs came from the Kaiparowits Formation, horned dinosaurs of a different sort have been found in the national monument’s 80-million-year-old Wahweap Formation. These older dinosaurs, such as the many-horned Diabloceratops, belonged to another branch of the horned dinosaur family tree called the centrosaurines. “If you were to line up the skulls [of the Wahweap and Kaiparowits dinosaurs] side by side,” Farke says, “they would look strikingly different!” especially since the two newly described dinosaurs had relatively larger and more ornamented frills.
Given the degree of completeness of both dinosaurs (entire skulls for both, the majority of the skeleton of Utahceratops, and the skeleton except the tail, feet, and forelimbs in Kosmoceratops), their description is a major contribution to our understanding of ceratopsid anatomy and diversity. What makes them especially noteworthy, however, is that they confirm the existence of disparate pockets of dinosaur evolution along the western continent of Laramidia. These genera were not evenly spread from Mexico to Canada, but were distinct from the horned dinosaurs that lived at the same time in the northern part of the continent. This is not just an accident of sampling, the authors of the new study propose, but a signal of a real biogeographical phenomenon.
The picture that emerges from the distribution of the horned dinosaurs around 75 million years ago is that there were at least two separate centers of chasmosaurine evolution on the western continent. Where there were Chasmosaurus, the recently-described Mojoceratops and Vagaceratops (previously Chasmosaurus irvinensis, but renamed by the authors of this study) to the north, Utahceratops, Kosmoceratops and Pentaceratops lived in the far south. Based on the distribution of these dinosaurs in space and time, Sampson, Farke and their colleagues propose that about 77 million years ago there was a barrier that separated chasmosaurines in the north from those in the south. This barrier would have precipitated the divergent evolution of the northern and southern groups identified in the study, though the close relationship of Kosmoceratops and Vagaceratops found by the scientists suggests that these dinosaurs shared a close common ancestor that spread after this impediment was removed about 75.7 million years ago. As Sampson states by e-mail, the recognition of this patten raises some important questions about dinosaur evolution on Laramidia:
The implications of this finding huge, given that Laramidia was a landmass about one-third the size of present day North America, and much of this area was likely off limits to large dinosaurs because of large mountain ranges to the west. Today we have a handful of rhino-to-elephant sized mammals living on Africa. At present, it seems that there were at least 15-20 rhino-to-elephant sized animals living on Laramidia 76 million years ago, despite the fact that it was less than one-fifth the size of Africa. How did so many species of giants co-exist on such a small chunk of land? The answer may relate to available fodder (more biomass than at present) and/or to metabolic rates (slower in dinosaurs than in mammals). Either way, these finding suggest that the hothouse world of dinosaurs was, at least in some respects, very different than the one we know today.
Furthermore, if the pattern of evolution in these horned dinosaurs really was influenced by the existence of an ancient barrier, then the same signs of isolation should be seen among other dinosaurs, as well. Hadrosaurs and tyrannosaurs probably would have been isolated in the same way, and the discovery and description of additional dinosaurs from Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument will be pivotal in further tests of this idea. Determining just what the barrier might have been, though, is another mystery. At present there is no sign of an actual physical barrier, though the authors of the new study suggest a previously-unidentified mountain range, temporary flooding by the nearby sea, a turbulent river system, or some kind of ecological barrier as possibilities.
The story of Laramidia will not be resolved by one paper alone, but will take years of study by many paleontologists. This is a good thing. Through something as simple as the description of two dinosaurs, paleontologists have placed the fauna of an entire lost continent in a new context, and, armed with a new set of questions, paleontologists can return to the strata of southern Utah in search of answers.
Sampson, S., Loewen, M., Farke, A., Roberts, E., Forster, C., Smith, J., & Titus, A. (2010). New Horned Dinosaurs from Utah Provide Evidence for Intracontinental Dinosaur Endemism PLoS ONE, 5 (9) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012292